For Bluetooth only beginners and users with less than 3 years of paid embedded development experience, I almost always recommend Anaren Atmosphere: Wireless Embedded System Development Tool For Applications - Atmosphere
And their BCM20737 based development kit: AIR for Wiced Smart | Anaren. Inc.
They also provide a mobile app that's easy to use for prototyping your app.
With that said, I'm not sure how to send your phone's GPS signal to the police with a Bluetooth only device. You will need some form of cloud connectivity (secure, the police would then have access to the same cloud) and an app on your phone. Developing iOS and Android apps of this type would be outside the scope of this community.
You could also use a combo (BT/WiFi) device/eval board, pair it with your phone, exchange GPS data, then send it over WiFi. This isn't a trivial app though. You may want to check some of the maker communities (Adafruit, Particle, etc.) to see if there is an existing app you can leverage.