It sound possible.
Which PSoC device are you using? I remember SWD port of PSoC4000/4100/4200 could be duplicated with EzI2C port.
For PSoC4000S/PSoC4100S, you can connect I2C pins to SWD interface externally, so that you don't need to switch hardware connections of I2C and SWD after programming, if you are using MiniProg-3 as debugger.
Regarding the host.... it requires the host to support software SWD(when programming) and I2C(before and after programming) switching. I think you can contact Arduino for how to make this kind of switch.