Hotwolf you do not need to use the bootloader to program this device you just need to add the Bootloadable component to your design in the top design schematic and you can write your program as you need to. The switch is only used for the programming so you would need to add another switch to some of the GPIO pins to accomplish what you want. Check the user manual for the board.
Thanks for your input, Bobgoar.
I've just upgraded to PSoC Creator 3.2 and now I can see where the problem is. My pin assignment for P0_7 was wrong, even though I had copied this component from the Bootloader schematic. PSoC Creator 3.2 has a nice pinout overview, which pointed out the cause of my problem. Everything works as it is supposed to, now.