It is not possible to observe each packet information and you cannot have an event callback kind of mechanism of observing errors. However, you can notice if a particular error has occurred or not by reading the value of a register.
Please refer the LNK_PHY_ERROR_CONF register in FX3 TRM.
You can also get a count of errors using the CyU3PUsbGetErrorCounts API.
I'll use that with a combination of endpoint events to log what is happening at the USB side.