When using the Day024_Throughput example alone, I do get a throughput of ~260kbps from PSoC baseboard to PRoC dongle, as suggested in the PDF. You will get this if Central and peripheral is CyBLE device. In this case, you can set the MTU size in Central as well.
But in the other case, when Central is an Android phone. The MTU size will be limited as per phones. Generally the MTU size for Androids are limited to 23. This is why you are not able to see a higher throughput .
Thanks & Regards,